Elias Kapetanopoulos, Professor Dr.

Department of History

Central Connecticut State University

New Britain, CT 06050-4010


E-mail: Kapetanopoulos@ccsu.edu


Web site: www.history.ccsu.edu/elias/elias.htm


Research: Athens in the Roman period, 200 B.C.-A.D. 300; early Makedon(ia)/Makedones.




8 ÉOktvbr€ou 2002 > 8 October 2002 = 6 ÉOktvbr€ou 2008 > 6 October 2008




OUTLINES  of the main sources of Alexander the Great: Diodoros, Curtius Rufus,  Plutarch, Arrian, Alexander Romance [done for a course on Alexander (which may be of some use)-scanned by Dave Gartner, Graduate Assistant]. Typographika may remain.  All rights reserved.


Substitutions: Hellas (ÑEllãw) (=in place of Greece) [Latin: Graecia]              Hellenes (ÜEllhnew) (=Greeks) [Latin: Graecus, Graeci]

Hellenic (=Greek)

Makedones (=Macedonians)

Makedonia (=Macedonia)

Makedonian (=Macedonian)



Diodoros [end of 1st c. B.C.], Bk. 17 in Two Parts [Loeb VIII, trans. by C. B. Welles]:




Contents of Part One


<<How Alexander, having succeeded to the throne, disposed the affairs of his

        kingdom (chaps. 1‑7).

How he recovered the tribes which revolted (chap. 8. 1-2).

How he razed Thebes to the ground and terrified the Hellenes and was

         elected general plenipotentiary of Hellas (chaps. 8. 3‑16).

How he crossed into Asia and defeated the satraps at the river Granicus in

         Phrygia (chaps. 17‑21).

How he took by siege Miletus and Halicarnassus (chaps. 22‑27).

The battle of Dareius against Alexander at Issus in Cilicia, and the victory of

        Alexander (chaps. 30‑39).

The siege of Tyre, the occupation of Egypt, and the journey of the king to

        Ammon (chaps. 40‑52).

The battle of Alexander with Dareius at Arbela and the victory of Alexander

        (chaps. 53‑61).

The battle of Antipater with the Lacedaernonians and the victory of Antipater

        (chaps. 62‑63).


Contents of Part Two


The capture of Arbela by Alexander and the seizure of great wealth (chap. 64.


The refreshment of the army in Babylon and the rewards given to those who

        had distinguished themselves in service (chap. 64. 3‑6)

The arrival of the mercenaries and allies dispatched to him (chap. 65. 1).

The organization and equipment of his army (chap. 65.2‑4).

How Alexander occupied Susa and its treasures (chap. 65. 5‑66).

How he mastered the passes and took possession of the so‑called Susian

         Gates (chaps. 67‑68)

How he showed kindness to the Hellenes who had been mutilated, and took

         and sacked Persepolis (chaps. 69‑71)

How he set fire to the palace in a revel (chap. 72)

The murder of Dareius by Bessus (chap. 73. 1‑4).

The expedition of Alexander into Hyrcania and an account of its marvellous

         plants (chap. 75).

How Alexander took the field against the Mardi and defeated them (chap. 76).

How Thalestris queen of the Amazons had relations with Alexander (chap. 77.


How the king, thinking himself invincible, imitated the luxury of the Persians

         (chap. 77. 4‑7).

The campaign of Alexander against the Areii who had revolted and the

         capture of the "Rock" (chap. 78).

The conspiracy against the king and the punishment of the conspirators, the

         most distinguished among them being Parmenion and Philotas (chaps.


The campaign of Alexander into the territory of the Paropanisadae and his

        adventures there (chap. 82).

The single combat that took place in the territory of the Areii and their

        annexation (chap. 83. 1‑6).

The death of Bessus, the murderer of Dareius (chap. 83. 7-9)

{How Alexander marched through the desert and lost many of his men (this

         and the subsequent chapters are missing).

How the Branchidae, who of old had been settled by the Persians on the

          borders of their kingdom, were slain by Alexander as traitors to the


How the king led his troops against the Sogdiani and Scythians.

How the chieftains of the Sogdiani, who were being led off to execution, were

         unexpectedly saved.

How Alexander defeated the Sogdiani who had revolted and slew more than

         one hundred and twenty thousand of them.

How he punished the Bactriani and subdued the Sogdiani a second time and

         founded cities in suitable places to restrain any who rebelled.

The third rebellion of the Sogdiani and capture of those who took refuge in the


Concerning the hunt in Basista and the abundance of game there.

Concerning the sin against Dionysus and the slaying of Cleitus at the

         drinking bout.

Concerning the death of Callisthenes.

The campaign of the king against the people called Nautaces and the

        destruction of the army in heavy snow.

How Alexander, enamoured of Roxane, daughter of Oxyartes, married her and

         persuaded numbers of his friends to marry the daughters of the

         prominent Iranians [=barbarians].

Preparation for the campaign against the Indians.

Invasion of India and complete annihilation of their first nation in order to

         overawe the rest.

How he benefited the city named Nysia because of his relationship to it

         through Dionysus}

How, after plundering the stronghold of Massaca, he cut down all the

         mercenaries although they fought magnificently (chap. 84).

How he took by assault the Rock called Aornus, which had always proved

         impregnable (chap. 85).

How he won over to his side Taxiles, king of the Indians, and in a great

         engagement defeated Porus, took him prisoner and gave him back his

         throne because of his gallant conduct (chaps. 86‑89).

An account of the marvellous serpents in the country and of the fruits which

         grow there (chap. 90).

How he won over to his side many of the neighbouring tribes and defeated

         others (chap. 91. 1‑4).

How he subdued the country that was subject to Sopeithes (chap. 91. 4).

Concerning the good government of the cities in this country (chap. 91. 4‑6).

Concerning the excellence of the dogs presented to Alexander (chap. 92).

Concerning the story told by the king of the Indians (chap. 93. 1‑3).

How, when Alexander desired to cross the Ganges River and march against

          the people called Gandaridae, the Makedones mutinied (chaps. 93.


How, after marking the furthest point reached by his army, the king visited the

         remaining regions of the Indians (chap. 95).

How he sailed down the Indus River to the southern Ocean, and almost died

         of an arrow wound (chaps. 96‑99).

Concerning the single combat that issued from a challenge (chaps.


Concerning the Indians whom he conquered on both banks of the river as far

         as the Ocean (chaps. 10!2‑103).

Concerning the marvels and practices found among the inhabitants and

         about the men who live a brutish existence (chaps. 104‑106. 3).

How the naval expedition through the Ocean rejoined Alexander as he was

         encamped by the sea and gave an account of their voyage (chap. 106.


How again setting sail they skirted a long expanse of coastline (chap. 107. 1).

How he selected thirty thousand young Persians, trained them in military

         exercises and formed them into a counterpart of his Makedonian

         phalanx (chap. 108.1‑3).

How Harpalus, who was accused of luxurious living and excessive

         expenditures, fled from Babylon and sought the protection of the people

         of Athens (chap. 108. 4‑7).

How he fled from Attica and was killed ; he had deposited seven hundred

         talents of his money with the Athenians and placed four thousand

         talents and eight  thousand mercenaries on Taenarum in Laconia

         (chap. 108. 7‑8).

How Alexander, having paid the debts of his veteran Makedones, which cost

         him  ten thousand talents, returned them to their homes (chap. 109.


How the Makedones revolted and he punished their ringleaders (chap. 109.


How Peucestes brought to Alexander ten thousand bowmen and slingers

         whom he had recruited from among the Persians (chap. 110. 2).

How the king reorganized his army by intermingling Persians with

         Makedoness (chap. 110. 1).

How he paid expenses and educational fees for all the soldiers' children, ten

         thousand in number (chap. 110. 3).

How Leosthenes made preparations for starting a war against the

         Makedoness (chap. Ill. 1‑3).

How Alexander campaigned against the Cossaeans (chap. 111. 4‑6).

How, as the king was on his way to Babylon, the Chaldaeans prophesied to

         Alexander that he would die if he entered Babylon (chap. 112. 1‑3).

How the king at first was frightened and passed Babylon by, but later,

         persuaded by the Hellenes philosophers, entered the city (chap. 112.


Concerning the multitude of embassies that arrived there (chap. 113).

Concerning the funeral of Hephaestion and the large sum expended on it

         (chaps. 114‑115)

Concerning the omens that appeared to Alexander and concerning his death

          (chaps. 116‑118).>>




Curtius [middle 1st c. A.D., it seems], The History of Alexander (transl. by John

 Yardley [introduction/notes by W. Heckel], Penguin Classics,1984)


Bks. I‑II, Summaries, pp. 19‑25.


Bk. III, pp. 26‑49:


26‑27     (1): Darius at the Euphrates ‑ most of western Asia Minor conquered by Alexander. Gordian knot.

28‑29     (2): Darius numbers his forces ‑ Charidemus, the Athenian, put to death.

29‑31(3): death of Memnon. Thymondas in command of Hellenic troops under Darius. Darius' dream. Persian army and Makedones compared.

31‑33(4): Alexander at the Cilician Gates ‑ at Tarsus.

33‑34(5): Alexander seriously ill -  against slow remedies.

34‑36(6): Philip, the faithful physician ‑ Parmenio's letter not to trust Philip.

36‑37(7): Alexander at Soli ‑ games to Asklepios and Athena. Decides to fight at Issus.

37‑40(8): Patron, commander of Hellenic troops ‑ Patron's motives questioned ‑ Darius meets Makedones at Issus.

40‑41(9): description of forces at Issus.

41‑42(10): Alexander extents his troops. Makedones, Hellenes, et alii.

42‑47(12): the battle ‑ Persians routed.

44‑47(12): Darius' family in Alexander's hands ‑ buries dead - visits Darius' family.

47‑49(13): at Damascus Parmenio gets Darius' treasures.


Bk. IV, PP. 50‑91:


50‑53(1): Darius to the Euphrates ‑ Alexander marches down the Syrian coast ‑ letter of Darius‑ ‑ Sidon ‑ Amyntas, the deserter, killed by Persians.

54‑56(2): siege of Tyre.

56‑59(3): siege of Tyre ‑ causeway.

59‑61(4): sea monster ‑ capture of Tyre.

61‑63(5): Darius' peace offer ‑ crown for Alexander at Isthmian games ‑ governors are appointed.

63‑66(6): capture of Gaza.

66‑69(7):   Alexander in Egypt ‑ visit to oracle of Zeus‑Ammon.

69‑702):    Foundation of ALEXANDRIA.

70‑73(9):   Darius at Arbela with a large force.

73‑75(10): Alexander against Darius ‑ death of Darius' wife.

76‑77(11): Darius' peace offer – 30.000 talents ‑ Parmenio's advice.

77‑79(12): Darius' huge army frightening the Makedones ‑ no turn back.

79‑83(13): Alexander will fight open warfare ‑ sleeps calmly - line of battle.

83‑85(14): Alexander and Darius address their armies.

85‑88(15): description of the battle of Gaugamela – Darius flees.

88‑91(16): Alexander to the aid of Parmenio(n) ‑ saved from great peril


Bk. V, pp. 92‑117:


92‑96(1): Darius heads for Media ‑ Alexander captures Arbela - goes to Babylon.

96‑97(2): contest in military valor ‑ takes Susa and its treasures.

98‑100(3): Uxii are defeated ‑ Ariobarzanes opposes Alexander at the Susian Gates.

100‑102(4): Alexander defeats Persians.

103‑105(5): takes Persepolis‑ ‑ frees 4.000 Hellenic prisoners.

105‑107(6): Persepolis plundered ‑ subjection of Mardi.

107‑108(7): burning of palace at PERSEPOLIS.

108‑109(8): Darius' whereabouts.

109‑111(9): Darius supported by Hellenic troops ‑ Bessus – Nabar – zanes’ escape.

111‑112(10): Bessus'‑Nabarzanes' plot against Darius.

112‑113(11): plot revealed to Darius.

113‑115(12): Bessus seizes Darius.

115‑117(13): Alexander to Darius ‑ Darius stabbed to death by Bessus, et alii.


Bk. VI, pp. 118‑145:


118‑119(1): Agis' war ‑ Alexander pardons Lacedaemonians.

119-121(2): Alexander and his adoption of foreign habits.

121‑123(3): Alexander reviews his accomplishments.

123‑125(4): the soldiers urge Alexander on – Caspian Sea.

125‑128(5): spares Hellenes ‑ QUEEN OF THE AMAZONS.

128‑131(6): Alexander's habits offend‑Makedones – campaigns against barbarians.

131‑133(7): conspiracy ‑ Dymnus ‑ Cebalinus.

133‑135(8): Philotas affair.

136‑138(9): Philotas accused.

139‑141(10): Philotas denies charges.

142‑145(11): Philotas' forced confession.


Bk. VII, pp. 146‑175:


146‑149(l): Alexander Lyncestes.

150‑153(2): death of PARMENION.

153‑155(3): Mt. Parapanisus ‑ Alexandria.

155‑158(4): Bessus flees ‑ combat of Satibarzanes and Erigyius.

158‑161(5): capture of Bessus.

162‑164(6): Sogdiana subdued - Alexandria.

164‑167(7): Alexander wounded - Scythians ‑ loss of 2.500 horsemen.

167‑169(8): envoys from Scythians.

169‑171(9): defeats Scythians.

171‑173(10): Sogdiana‑Bactra‑Bessus‑ six cities founded.

173‑175(11): capture of crag of Arimaza.


Bk. VIIII pp. 176‑211:


176‑180(l): Scythian king's daughter offered to Alexander ‑ the CLEITUS AFFAIR.

180‑183(2): Alexander repents.

183‑184(3): Spitamenes' wife brings her husand's head to Alexander.

184‑187(4): Alexander's endurance and courage ‑ marries ROXANE.

187‑189(5): Callisthenes ‑ proskynesis (prostration).

189‑192(6): conspiracy of Hermolaus ‑ Callisthenes imprisoned.

192‑193(7): Hermolaus accuses Alexander.

193‑195(8): Alexander replies ‑ death of CALLISTHENES and other conspirators is ordered.

196‑198(9):. Alexander marches into India ‑ description of India.

198‑201(10): princes of India submit - wounded at Magazae - admits his mortality.

201‑203(11): captures crag of Aornos - not captured previously by Herakles.

203‑204(12): crosses the Indus.

205‑207(13): at the Hydaspes ‑ war on Porus.

207‑211(14): defeat of Porus ‑ Alexander's clemency.


Bk. IX, pp. 212‑237:


212‑214(1): Alexander at the Hyphasis river.

215‑217(2): soldiers refuse to go further.

218‑22O(3): Coenus supports the soldiers ‑ Alexander decides to turn back ‑ DEATH OF COENUS.

220‑222(4): soldiers restless ‑ defeats the Malli(ans).

222‑225(5): Alexander severely wounded ‑ rescued by his Companions.

225‑227(6): urged to look after himself and the public interest.

227‑230(7): revolt of Hellenes in Bactriana ‑ duel of CORRATAS and DIOXIPPUS. Dioxippus kills himself,

230‑232(8): Alexander sails down the Indus. Ptolemy is wounded.

232‑235(9): Alexander at the OCEAN.

235‑237(10): Nearchus by sea ‑ Alexander by land ‑ Bacchanal procession. (back to Susa).


Bk. X, pp. 238‑257:


238‑241(1): severity toward corrupt governors ‑ revolt of Odrysian Thrace.

241‑244(2): Alexander plans to go to Athens - pays soldiers' debts ‑ quells mutiny in camp.

244‑245(3): punishes mutineers ‑ praises foreign soldiers.

245(4): order to throw conspirators into the river.

245‑248(5): at his DEATHBED ‑ ring is given to PERDICCAS ‑ directs his body to be taken to AMMON ‑ summary of his good and bad qualities.

248‑250(6): who is to succeed Alexander.

250‑252(7): Meleager favors Arrhidaeus ‑ expected son of Roxane ‑ Perdiccas‑Leonnatus regents.

252‑254(8): Meleager incites Arrhidaeus against Perdiccas.

254‑255(9): lustration of army ‑ Perdiccas kills Meleager.

255‑257(10): Alexander's empire partitioned. Rumor that Alexander was poisoned. Body embalmed ‑ Ptolemy takes it to Memphis and later to Alexandria.




Plutarch [ca. 50-125 A.D.], Life of Alexander (Penguin Classics: Plutarch: The

           Age of  Alexander, transl. by Ian Scott-Kilvert, pp. 252‑334).


  1.     Why the Life of Alexander ‑ p. 252

  2.      Alexander's descent ‑ 252

  3.     Omens before his birth ‑ 254

  4.     Official sculptor of Alexander ‑ 255

  5.      Early signs of leadership          256

  6.      Bucephalas ‑ 257

  7.      Alexander under Aristotle          258

  8.      Aristotle's influence on Alexander ‑ 259

  9.      Regent of Makedonia at sixteen ‑ 260

10.     The Pixodarus affair ‑ 262

11.      At twenty king of Makedonia ‑ 263

12.      Sacking of Thebes ‑ 264

13.      Alexander‑Athenians ‑ 265

14.      Congress of Hellenic states ‑ 266

15.      His army ‑ 267

16.      River Granicus – 268-269

17.      Implication(s) of River Granicus           270

18.       March through Asia Minor ‑ 271

19.       Darius‑Alexander‑Cilicia ‑ 272

20.       Darius‑Alexander‑Cilicia – 273

21.       Darius' family prisoners ‑ 275

22.       Sale of beautiful boys ‑ 276

23.       Moderate in drinking ‑ 277

24.       After Issus‑Damascus ‑ 278

25.       Siege of Tyre ‑ 280

26.       Iliad most precious possession - 281

27.       Zeus Ammon ‑ 283

28.       Alexander: barbarians‑Hellenes - 284

29.       Letter of Darius to Alexander - 285

30.       Alexander remorseful because of Darius' wife's death - 286

31.       Advance against Darius ‑ 287

32.       Alexander‑Parmenio‑engagement ‑ 289

33.       Gaugamela ‑ 290

34.       Gaugamela seen as end of Persian empire ‑ 291

35.       Babylonia ‑ 292

36.       Susa ‑ 293

37.       Beyond Susa ‑ 294

38.       Against Darius (spring of 330 B.C.) - 295

39.       Alexander generous ‑ 296

40.       Luxurious habits of companions ‑ 297

41.       Risking‑exercising ‑ 298

42.       Time for letters ‑ 299

43.       Alexander ahead of his men - 300

44.       Hyrcania ‑ 301

45.       Barbarian dress (Parthia) - 301

46.       Queen of Amazons ‑ 302


47.       Concerned about will of Makedones 303

48.       Philotas ‑ 304

49.       Philotas ‑ 30

50.       Cleitus affair ‑ 307

51.      Cleitus affair ‑ 308

52.      Alexander sulking ‑ 309

53.      Callisthenes ‑ 310

54.      Reasons of quarrel ‑ 311

55.      Callisthenes ‑ 312

56.       Demaratus ‑ 313: Woe to the Hellenes who died before Alexander.

57.       India ‑ 314

58.       Casualties ‑ 315

59.       Taxiles ‑ 316

60.       Porus ‑ 317

61.       Death of Bucephalas ‑ 318

62.       Troops unwilling to continue ‑ 319

63.       Outer ocean ‑ 320

64.       Indian philosophers ‑ 321

65.       Indian philosophers ‑ 322

66.       Mouth of Indus ‑ 323

67.       March through Carmania ‑ 324

68.       Nearchus‑Alexander join ‑ 325

69.       Money to women ‑ Calanus ‑ 326

70.       Marriages ‑ 327

71.       30.000 boys trained in Hellenic language‑Makedonian fighting 328

72.       Literary‑artistic exhibitions (contests) ‑ 329

73.       Alexander at Babylon          330

74.       Alexander suspicious         331

75‑      Alexander‑supernatural ‑ 331

76.       His sickness ‑ 332

77.       Death‑Roxane ‑ 333




Plutarch [ca. 50-125 A.D.], On the Fortune or Virtue of Alexander (Moralia,

                326D‑345B, transl. by F. C. Babbitt, Loeb IV)


I.      1:     Alexander, Fortune's (Tyche's) handiwork.

        2:     Alexander's reply to Fortune ‑ enumerates his deeds.

        3:     difficulties before his expedition: Hellas gasping over Philip's wars. Thebes helped by Athens ‑ Makedonia festering with revolt - looking toward Amyntas and Aeropos' sons. Illyrians‑Scythians. Persian gold ‑ Philip's treasures bare of money ‑ owing 200 talents ‑ though a stripling hoped for Babylon and Susa. relying on'30‑000 foot, 4.000 horse (Aristobulus). King Ptolemy: 30‑000 foot, 5.000 horse ‑ Anaximenes: 43‑000 foot, 5.500 horse. War chest: 70 talents (Aristobulus) ‑ Duris: provision for 30 days.

    4:  Philosophy equipped Alexander with greatness of soul, keen intelligence, self‑restraint, manly courage. Aristotle equipped him more than Philip. IliadOdyssey, equipment for his campaigns. His true equipment, philosophic teaching. Established Hellenic cities among savage nations.

        5:     Plato, Socrates conversed with pupils who knew Hellenic. Alexander civilized Asia. Indians worshipping Hellenic gods. Persians‑Susianians‑Gedrosians chanting tragedies of Sophocles and Euripides. Bactria and Caucasus learned to revere Hellenic gods. Sowed all Asia with Hellenic magistracies. Alexandrias in Egypt and else.

        6:     Zeno's Republic: men of one community and one polity. Alexander effected this. Alexander did not follow Aristotle's advice: treat Hellenes as if you were their leader, others as if you were their master ‑ regard Hellenes‑ as friends and kindred, others as though plants or animals. Hellenics and foreigners should not be differentiated by chlamys (cloak), targe, or scimitar and jacket. Distinguishing mark of Hellenic, virtue ‑ of the foreigner, iniquity.

        7:     Demaratus of Corinth seeing Alexander in Susa exclaimed: All the Hellenes who had died before that hour had been deprived of a great joy, since they had not seen Alexander seated on Darius' throne. Plutarch would rather have been present at the marriage rite, when an hundred Persian brides and an hundred Makedonian and Hellenic bridegrooms, united at a common hearth and board (Life of Alexander, lxx (703E); Arrian, Anabasis, vii.4; Diodorus, xvii.107.6; Athenaeus, 538B‑E Aelian, Varia Historia, viii.7 (elsewhere number is not 100~.

        8:     Alexander preferred Persian raiment ‑ wore a composite dress of Persian and Makedonian fashion ‑ to acquire the goodwill of the conquered by showing respect for their apparel.

        9:     Plan and design of expedition commends Alexander as a philosopher in his purpose ‑poets attempt to show his power and not his moderation (on his portraits and statues), another has Alexander say: I am the son of Zeus. But let's review Alexander's genuine sayings ‑ Olympic games ‑ Philip's wounding by Triballians.

        10:   Iliad, iii.179: Both things is he; both goodly king and a warrior mighty ‑ describing Agamemnon, but Alexander, too. His visit to Troy. Alexander rejects Paris' lyre. Awed and astounded with the life and worth of Diogenes ‑ "If I were not Alexander, I should be Diogenes." Purpose: combine foreign things with things Hellenic, civilize every continent, push bounds of Makedonia to the Ocean, disseminate and shower blessings of Hellenic justice and peace over every nation. I imitate Herakles, emulate Perseus and follow in the footsteps of Dionysus ‑ and victorious Hellenes dance again in India. Stamp foreign states with the impress of Hellenic government.

        11:   Do Alexander's deeds reveal a caprice of Fortune? In Alexander, the warlike is also humane, the mild also manly, etc. When Asked Porus, the latter replied to be treated "Like a King." Enamored with Roxane, made her his wife. "Like a philosopher."

        12:   Alexander indignantly rejects the suggestion to send him the most beautiful youth in Ionia. Xenocrates is admired for returning to Alexander the 50 talents, but Alexander for his gesture. NATURE is prone to lead men to GOOD. Philosophers different from common men. Philosophers fortified by such conceptions as "Best is one omen" (Iliad, xii.243) and "Death is the end for all men." Crises destroy all calculations, etc.


II.     1:     Alexander's age produced many artistic achievements and many men of great talent. But perhaps this was not of Alexander's good fortune (tyche). Conclusion: artists distinguished themselves not because they lived in Alexander's age, but because of what Alexander did for them. Examples of other individuals. Philip petty and childish in these matters (argued with a harp‑player).

        2:     Alexander knew when to be a spectator and listener and when to play the chief role ‑ always formidable in arms ("sturdy contender in arms, baleful to the opponents"). This he inherited from his ancestors the Aeacidae and Herakles. Thettalus‑Athenodorus, tragic actors, competing, Alexander's generals as judges. Athenodorus won ‑ Alexander's saying. Other examples involving artists. Greatly influenced by the flute played by Antigenides. Apelles and Lysippus, Alexander's painter and sculptor respectively. Alexander often looked toward the heavens ‑ slight inclination of head to one side ‑ epigram. Stasicrates, mastersculptor, accompanied Alexander in Asia ‑ wanted to sculpt Mt. Athos into Alexander ‑ Alexander declines.

        3:     Imagine if such a work had been completed and made evident to men's eyes. What Nature provides and teaches. Fortune, too, frequently bestowing on cowards and fools military forces and dominions, emblazons and commends Virtue, etc. Comparison of Semiramis and Sardanapalus (woman‑man). Statue of Phryne, the hetaera, at Delphi (Crates: Hellenic licentiousness). Aridaeus, etc.

        4:     Fortune makes men petty, timid and abject in spirit. Yet baseness is not to be charged to misfortune, and courage and intelligence to good fortune. But Alexander's reign magnified Fortune. What Leosthenes said. Men, like Perdiccas‑Meleager‑Seleucus‑Antigonus, held Alexander's forces (after his death) ‑but at length it wasted and maggots emerged. Alexander rebuked Hephaestion for his quarrel with Craterus.

        5:     Greatness lies, not in the possession of good things, but in the use of them. But who could make Aridaeus great? Meleager set him

                 on the throne. The eunuch Bagoas. The ability to sustain and administer great authority is the mark of a man who possesses virtue, sense and intelligence. Alexander possessed this virtue, whom some accuse of drunkenness and a passion for wine. Alexander, a truly great man ‑ sober in the conduct of afLairs ‑ nor did authority and power made him drunk and a reveller. Cleitus called himself Poseidon. Demetrius allowed to be called "The Heaven‑descended," etc. ‑ other examples: LysimachusClearchus‑Dionysius, et alii.

        6:     Alexander had breakfast at daybreak seated, etc. Married Roxane, because he loved her; and Stateira, Darius' daughter, for imperial and political reasons ‑ exercised self‑control toward other Persian women, or women in general. Lamented the death of Darius' wife ‑ others mistook his humanity for wrongdoing. Darius believed Alexander's victory to be through Fortune. After studying matter, changed his mind: may I (Darius be more humane than Alexander and grant, oh Zeus, that Alexander, than anyone else, seat on Cyrus' throne. Thus, Darius adopted Alexander.

        7:     Men prevail through Virtue (arete). His deeds may be ascribed to Fortune ‑ being temperate, self‑controlled, not impregnable to pleasure, nor invulnerable to desire ‑ these not Fortune's gift. By these qualities Alexander defeated Darius. Darius yielded in virtue and greatness of soul, in prowess and justice ‑ marveled at Alexander's invincibility in pleasure, in toil, in the bestowal of favors. (A)tarrias and his supposed debt. Antigenes, though not wounded, joined those returning to Makedonia. Philotas and the hetaera Antigona who reported what he said. Alexander keeps it within himself for some 7 years. Hephaestion reading with Alexander Olympias' letter.

        8:.    Made the most regal use of his authority. Fortune (Tyche) made him great, but made good use of his Fortune (Tyche). Through his Virtue (arete) Alexander became worthy of his Fortune. The first steps in Alexander's advancement. Men asserting that Alexander became great through Fortune's instrumentality. Examples which speak against this (Darius‑Xerxes‑Oarses‑the archons chosen by lot at Athens ‑ Argos: Heracleidae ‑ Paphos: the elevation of Abdalonymus to king by Alexander).

        9:     Alexander's greatness through just merits, sweat, blood, a price, labor examples to support this. Frankness (Parresia) questioning Fortune (Tyche) on Alexander's exploits. Examples disimilar to Alexander: Antiochus, Artaxerxes, Ptolemy Philadelphus, set on throne because of good fortune. Alexander smitten all over his body ‑ where these happened. Alexander casually reports it to Antipater.

        10:   One may say that Fortune exalted and made him great through what happened to him ‑ the exposure of his body ‑ Alexander felt the hand of Fortune more heavily ‑ other rulers were destroyed, but toward Alexander Fortune's ill‑will became but contentious and quarrelsome ... (cf. Herakles). Fortune raised giants‑monsters to oppose Alexander, but Alexander met them valiantly ‑examples.

        11:   Through Fortune Alexander almost lost the repute of being Ammon's son ‑ compared to Herakles and his painful Labors. Virtue laid upon Alexander the royal Labor, whose aim was not gold, Persian luxury, banquets, women, wine ..., but to order all men by one law and to render them submissive to one rule and accustomed to one manner of Life. This was implanted in him from childhood. Philip‑Persian ambassadors‑Alexander's questioning. After Philip's death, Fortune confronted Alexander, as he was preparing to cross into Asia ‑ wars with Illyrians and Triballians ‑ Ister‑Scythia ‑Thebes, where through necessity punished and slaughtered kith and kin. Set out for Asia with 30 days provisions (Phylarchus), 70 talents (Aristobulus). Divided the greater part of his possessions and royal revenues at home among his friends. Perdiccas‑Alexander.

        12:   What were Alexander's hopes when he crossed into Asia? Not an enormous army, but a little army of rivalry‑competition‑excellence. His high hopes: reverence for the gods, fidelity toward his friends, frugality, self‑control, experience, fearlessness toward death, etc. Homer: Agamemnon. God who begat Alexander may have made his natural endowment a harmonious combination of virtues ‑ but Alexander possessed Cyrus' high spirit, Agesilaus' discretion, Themistocles' intelligence, Philip's experience, Brasidas' daring, Pericles' eloquence and statesmanship. More self‑restrained than Agamemnown ‑ more magnanimous than Achilles ‑ more reverent than Diomedes ‑ more deeply mourned than Odysseus.

        13:   If Solon's statesmanship, Miltiades' generalship, Aristides, justice were Fortune's, then in these men there was no work of Virtue. But if they became great through Virtue and reason, then compare Alexander with them. Solon's seisachtheia‑Alexander's payment of soldiers' debts. Pericles with Hellenic money adorned the Acropolis ‑ Alexander with barbarian moneys ordered construction of temples in Hellas. Brasidas became renowed in Hellas, but Alexander in the country of the Oxydrachae (the Mallians). Here Fortune made manifest the result of her kindliness toward Alexander. What happened there ‑ Alexander, Fortune's favorite, caught within the walls like a wild beast with no succor. Contentious and malicious Fortune favored the barbarians and hated Alexander and tried to destroy him in everything. Alexander would not have died an inglorious death, if he had fallen beside the Euphrates, etc. ‑Pelopidas and Epameinondas suffered glorious death belonging to Virtue, not to misfortune. But Fortune was now preparing for Alexander an inglorious death in an obscure hamlet (what happened there). How Alexander defended himself –Limnaios-Ptolemy‑Leonnatus‑others, a bulwark of Virtue. Not due to Fortune did Companions risked their lives for their king, but because of a passion (eros) for Virtue (arete). A spectator would have witnessed a mighty contest between Fortune and Virtue. Barbarians prevailing through Fortune, but the Hellenes through Virtue. If the barbarians prevail, it will be through Fortune, but if the Hellenes, through Virtue (arete). Here Fortune became a barrier between Alexander and his men. Finally, the Makedones routed the barbarians. Alexander carried out of the battlefield, with the arrow in his vitals. Tries to cut off arrow, but his hand unsteady. Urged the others to do it. And aloud he cried to his Companions: "Let no one be faint‑hearted even for my sake! For it will not be believed that I do not fear death, if you fear death for me!"




Arrian [middle 2nd c. A.D.], The Campaigns of Alexander (tansl. by Aubrey de

 Sélincourt [revised with introduction/notes by J.R. Hamilton], Penguin Classics,1971)


Bk. I, pp. 41‑100:


          41:        Preface

    42‑43:        (1) Assumes leadership of Community of Hellenic States - against Thrace, Triballians and Illyrians.

    44‑45:        (2) against Triballians

          46:        (3): at the Ister (Danube) river ‑ Celts

    47‑48:        (4) Crossed the Ister ‑ Getae

    49‑51:        (5) against the Agrianians and Paeonians. LangarusTaulantians‑Glaucias,

    52‑53:        (6) Draw up of phalanx ‑ Taulantians ‑ attacks Cleitus and Glaucias.

    54‑56:        (6) Thebes affair.

    57‑59:        (8) Thebes affair

    60‑62:        (9) Thebes ‑ greatest disaster..

          63:        (10) Reaction of other Hellenic states.

    64‑66:        (11) Returns to Makedonia ‑ in the spring (334 B.C.) sets out for Asia.

    67‑68:        (12) Visit to Troy ‑ Memnon advises Persians not to risk war with Alexander.

    69‑70:        (13) toward the Granicus.

          71:        (14)                         

    72‑73:        (15)                         

    74‑75:        (16)                         

    76‑77:        (17) toward Sardes Ephesus

    78‑80:        (18) representatives‑of Magnesia and Tralles. Miletus.

    81‑82:        (19) Miletus ‑ enemy attacks from Mycale.

    83‑85:        (20) Alexander disbands his navy ‑ toward Caria. Halicarnassus.

          86:        (21) Halicarnassus.

    87‑88:        (22)    11

          89:        (23) Ada, satrap of Caria.

    90‑91:        (24), newly married Makedones sent back to Makedonia for the winter. Moves into Lycia and Pamphylia.

    92‑93:        (25) Reported treachery of Alexander son of Aeropos. Amyntas who had deserted to the Persians. Omen at Halicarnassus. Arrest of Alexander son of Aeropos.

          94:        (26) Toward Side and Aspendus.

    95‑96:        (27) at Aspendus ‑ to Perga, from there toward Phrygia by Telmissus.

          97:        (28) at Sagalassus (Pisidia).

  98‑100:        (29) enters Phrygia ‑ toward Gordium. Athenian captives not released by Alexander.


Bk. II, pp. 101‑147:


        101:        (1) Memnon appointed by Darius commander‑in‑chief to divert war into Hellas and Makedonia.

102‑103:        (2) Movements of Persians ‑ Antipater's moves to protect Hellas and islands.

104-105:        (3), Gordian knot.

106-107:        (4) Galatia‑Cappadocia‑river Halys. Cilicia. Alexander ill from fatigue. Philip, the doctor.

        108:        (5) Parmenio , to secure other Gates‑Cilicia/Assyria. at Soli ‑ sacrifice to Asklepios ‑Tarsus.

109‑110:        (6) Darius near Assyrian Gates. Alexander near Myriandrus ‑ Amyntas advises Darius. Darius thinks Alexander will not advance further.

111‑113.:       (7) Darius toward Issus ‑ Alexander addresses the troops.

114‑115:        (8) Alexander waits ‑ Darius responds to Alexander's moves. Persian force: 600.000. Alexander's posting of troops.

116‑117:        (9) Alexander rearranges his cavalry.

        118:        (10) Alexander leads his forces. The battle.

119‑120:        (11) Battle ‑ Darius flees ‑ casualties.

121‑122:        (12) Alexander visits the wounded. Visits Darius' family.

123‑124:        (13) Darius' flight ‑ Persians at Chios ‑ Alexander at Hollow Syria ‑ toward Phoenicia.

125‑127:        (14) Darius' letter ‑ Alexander's letter to Darius hegemon of the Hellenes.

        128:        (15) capture of Hellenic envoys with Darius ‑ to Byblus and Sidon.

129‑130:        (16) at Tyre ‑ Tyrian Herakles.

        131:        (17) Alexander's speech ‑ affairs in Hellas.

132‑133:        (18) attack on Tyre ‑ mole.

        134:        (19) Tyrians counterattack.

135‑136:        (20) Triremes from Gerostratus‑Enylos‑Rhodes‑Makedonia. Mt. Antilibanus. Tyrians do not meet Alexander on the sea.

137‑138:        (21) engineers‑engines for siege. Tyrians resist.

        139:        (22) Tyrians attack ships ‑ Alexander attacks Tyrians engines brought against wall.

        140:        (23 engines brought aboard ships ‑ gangways upon the walls.

141‑142:        (24) Tyrians retreat ‑ at Shrine of Agenor ‑ massacrethose in Temple of Herakles spared ‑ Tyre captive.

        143:        (25) offers from Darius, ceding lands west of Euphrates. Parmenio‑Alexander. Alexander replies. On to Egypt.

144‑145:        (26) Gaza.

146‑147:        (27) siege of Gaza   Alexander wounded ‑ Gaza taken.


Bk. III, pp. 148‑200:


        148:        (1) Alexander at Egypt Memphis ‑ athletic and literary contest at site of future Alexandria.

149‑150:        (2) story about foundation of Alexandria. Tenedos, Chios join Alexander.

        151:        (3) visit to Ammon in Libya. Ptolemy, serpents ‑ Aristobulus, crows guiding.

152‑153:        (4) Temple of Ammon back to Memphis.

        154:        Hellenic embassies at Memphis ‑ arranges affairs of Egypt and Libya. Romans learned from Alexander.

155‑157:        (6) Spring (of 331 B.C.) sets out for Phoenicia. at Tyre ‑athletic‑literary contest. Paralus, Athenian captives freed. Revolt (in Alexander’s favor) in the Peloponnese. Harpalus in charge of moneys. (Alexander under Philip's suspicion).

        158:        (7) at Thapsacus. The river bridged. Marching through Mesopotamia. Hastens to the Tigris. Total eclipse of moon ‑sacrifice to Moon, Sun, Earth. Interpretation of eclipse.

159‑160:        (8) Alexander moves quickly ‑ takes captives ‑ Darius not far off. Darius' forces (40.000 horse, 1.000.000 foot, 200 scythe‑chariots).. Darius at Gaugamela (600 stadia from Arbela).

161‑162:        (9) Darius prepares for battle ‑ Alexander draws up his phalanx (30 stadia away). Alexander surveys the battlefield ground. How they were to fight.

        163:        (10) His commanders assure him ‑ a night attack is rejected ‑reasons.

164‑165:        (11) Darius marshalled all night ‑ how Darius' army is arranged ‑ Alexander's army.

        166:        (12) Alexander's second reserve line ‑ disposition of right and left wings. (Alexander's army, 7.000 horse, 40.000 foot)..

        167:        (13) armies near each other ‑ movement of troops ‑ attack of scythe‑chariots

168‑169:        (14) maneuvering ‑ routing of Persians ‑ Makedonian left in trouble, line broken. Darius' flight.

170‑171:        (15) Parmenio requests help ‑ 60 Companions fell ‑ Hephaestion‑Coenus‑Menidas wounded. Thessalian cavalry in action ‑ Alexander pursues Darius ‑ at Arbela. Casualties at Gaugamela. (Oct. 331 B.C.).

172‑174:        (16) Darius fled to Media. Toward Babylon ‑ enters city ‑sets for Susa ‑ treasure: 50‑000 talents of silver ‑bronze statues of Harmodius and Aristogeiton. Torch race‑athletic contest.

        175:        (17) at the land of the Uxians.

176‑178:        (18) at the Persian Gates ‑ guarded by Ariobarzanes ‑attacks the wall ‑ Alexander takes the Persian Gates. Palace burnt at Persepolis ‑ why.

179‑180:        (10 toward Media where Darius was reported. at Ecbatana. Har alus in charge of treasure.

        181:        (203) against Darius who had passed the Campian Gates. Alexander, too.

182‑183:        (21) Bessus arrests Darius ‑ Alexander on hot pursuit. Bessus king of Persia. Hellenic mercenaries faithful to Darius. Darius to be traded. Alexander presses on. death of Darius (July 330 B.C.).

184‑185:        (22) Alexander sends Darius' body to Persepolis. Description of Darius (about 50 years old).

186‑187:        (23) toward Hyreania. against the Tapurians. Alexander advances to Zadracarta (Hyrcania). Envoys from Hellenic mercenaries (about 1500) Alexander accepts them.

        188:        (24) against the Mardians ‑ arrival of mercenary Hellenes. Lacedaemonian‑Athenian envoys (their treatment). How he dealt with Hellenes.

189‑190:        (25) toward Zadracarta (Hyrcania). Bessus reported wearing his cap royal fashion, etc, Alexander toward Bactria. (Nicanor, son of Parmenio, dead). Massacre of Anaxippus and mounted javelin‑men. advances‑against Satiberzanes. Those responsible for revolt punished.

        191:        (26) Philotas affair.

192‑193:        (27) Amyntas brought to trial, et alii. Hephaestion and Cleitus appointed over Companions. Ariaspians‑Benefactors. Sacrifice to Apollo.

194‑195:        (28) toward Bactria and against Bessus. Single combat of Satibarzanes and Erigyius. at "Hindu‑Kush" (Caucasus) ‑Alexandria. On Mt. Caucasus ‑ Bessus ravaging the country ‑ determined on flight.

        196:        (29) to Aornos and Bactra ‑ Oxus river ‑ description. Veterans sent home ‑ crossing of Oxus.. Ptolemy, son of Lagus.

197‑200:        (30) capture of Bessus. Alexander questions Bessus-to be put to death at Bactra. Toward Maracanda. On to Tanais (Jaxartes) ‑ description of river. Makedones cut down ‑Alexander wounded in the leg. Those responsible punished.


Bk. IV, pp. 201‑254:


        201:        (1) Abian Scythians ‑ to found a city by the Tanais. Revolt in Sogdiana‑Bactria.

        202:        (2) Alexander against the rebels ‑ at Gaza.

203‑204:        (3) captures 5 cities ‑ against Cyropolis ‑ 7th city captured. Asian Scythians at Tanais. Spitamenes besiegin Marakanda.

205‑207:        (4) to found city ‑ settling Hellenic mercenaries. Scythians challenge Alexander. Sacrifices not favorable. Motres against Scythians. Great thirst ‑ diarrhoea ‑ saves army.

208‑209:        (5) envoys from the Scythians, apologizing. Siege of Marakanda lifted. Spitamenes‑Makedones. Makedones cut down.

        210:        (6) how force was destroyed. Alexander distressed at disaster. Marches to Marakanda. Rivers of the area.

211‑212:        (7) winters at Zariaspa. Arrival of Hellenic mercenaries. Bessus is brought out ‑ accused by Alexander. Arrian criticizes Alexander's cruel punishment of Bessus and Alexander's adoption of Persian ways.

213‑215:        (8) Cleitus affair.

216‑217:        (9), Arrian's views on the Cleitus affair ‑ why it hapened ‑ consolation of Alexander (Anaxarchus, the sophist).


        218:        (10) Callisthenes disapproved and Arrian agrees ‑ but criticizes Callisthenes. Callisthenes hostile to Alexander. Anaxarchus' remarks at the wine‑party.

219‑221:        (11) Makedones offended by Anaxarchus' remarks. Callisthenes opposes Anaxarchus – his speech.

        222:        (12) Alexander irritated‑Makedones pleased. Incidents at proskynesis (prostration). Arrian censures, both Alexander and Callisthenes.

223‑224:        (13) Royal pages ‑ conspiracy of Hermolaus. Syrian woman with a spirit of divination ‑ plot revealed.

225‑226:        (14) Hermolaus confesses his plot. Stoned to death. Callisthenes imprisoned. (these happened after Cleitus affair).

        227:        (15) envoys from European Scythians ‑ Alexander gives a courteous reply to a marriage alliance. Mentions a later expedition against Scythians ‑ at the Oxus ‑ 2 springs (water, oil).

228‑229:        (16) at Sogdiana ‑ Spitamenes with Massagetae against Zariaspa. Those left at Zariaspa ambushed by Scythians ‑ Peithon captured.

230‑231:        (17) Craterus against Massagetae ‑ flee into desert. Makedones prevail. Affairs of Bactria. Spitamenes against Coenus. Makedones have upper hand.

        232:        (18) Winters at Nautaca. Various campaigns ‑ at spring against Rock of Sogdiana. Family of Oxyartes there ‑ rivalry to capture the Rock.,

233‑234:        (19) surrender of Rock. Oxyartes' daughter Roxane. Alexander in love with Roxane. Alexander commended for his behavior toward Roxane and Darius' wife.

        235:        (20) story about Darius (after Issus) ‑ asking about his family ‑ Oxyartes comes to Alexander.

236‑237:        (21) against the Pareitacae and Rock of Chorienes. Chorienes surrenders (through Oxyartes). Because of winter army has suffered.

238‑239:        (22) toward Bactria. From Bactria (spring ending, 329 B.C.) toward India ‑crossed the Caucasus (Hindu‑Kush) ‑ Taxiles and others come to meet Alexander. Army divided, one part to Indus.

        240:        (23) Alexander with other part against Aspassians, and others ‑ river Choes. Capturing of cities.

241‑242:        (24) Alexander at Euaspla. Ptolemy despoils Indian who struck him with spear. Capture of the city Arigaeus. Fires of the tribesmen.

243‑244:        (25) battle on the plain ‑ 40.000 captured, 230.000 oxen. at the Assacenians‑Guraeans.

        245:        (26) against Massaga. Battle with the tribesmen.

246‑247:        (27) death of Indian chief ‑ Indians ask for truce. Indians cut down.‑ against Bazira and Ora. Alexander himself against Bazira and Ora.

248‑249:        (28) Rock of Aornos. Legend of Herakles. Walling of cities. Moving toward Indus. Advances toward Rock.

250‑251:        (29) how to assault Rock. Plans of attacking Rock.

252‑254:        (30) building of mound‑seizing of hill. Indians' intent for a truce. Rock falls. Area of Assacenians invaded. On to Indus. Hunting elephants.


Bk. V, pp. 255‑300:


        255:        (1) Nysa‑Dionysus (India)

256‑257:        (2):               

        258:        (3) Arrian's comment

259‑260:        (4) Indus river.

        261:        (5) geography comments

262‑263:        (6)                             

264‑265:        (7) Indus bridged ‑ methods of bridging

        266:        (8) Alexander crosses the Indus ‑ welcomed by Taxiles. Porus across the Hydaspes.

        267:        (9), Alexander at the Hydaspes, Porus on the other bank.

        268:        (10) crossing the Hydaspes

        269:        (11)                              

        270t        (12) “                      

271‑272:        (13) “                             .  Drawing up of forces.

273‑274:        (14) Porus' son. Ptolemy's, Aristobulus' accounts


        275:        (15) Alexander's attack ‑ Porus against Alexander ‑ Porus' line..

        276:        (16) Tactics of meeting enemy.

277‑278:        (17) Indians' tactics ‑ battle.

279‑280:        (18) Craterus also crossed the Hydaspes ‑ Indian casualties ‑ Porus fought bravely, Taxiles to Porus. Comes to Alexander.

281‑282:        (19) Alexander admires Porus ‑ exchange of words. Founding of Nikaia and Boukephala ‑ Bucephalus.

283‑284:        (20) Alexander honors the dead ‑ athletic contests ‑cavalry games. Alexander against other Indians beyond Porus' kingdom. Indian ambassadors ‑ revolt of the Assacenians - Alexander toward the Acesines river.

        285:        (21) crosses the Acesines ‑ Coenus left there. Alexander against the other Porus. at the Hydraotes river ‑ crosses it.

        286:        (22) Cathaeans preparing for battle ‑ Alexander against the Cathaeans. Alexander draws up his forces.

287‑288:        (23) Alexander leads his foot‑soldiers ‑ besieging of city.

289‑290:        (24) engages the barbarians -  Porus arrived. Eumenes against revolting cities. Alexander at Sangala.

291‑292:        (25) Alexander wants to advance beyond the Hyphasis. Makedones reluctant. Alexander addresses the troops.

293‑294:        (26) Alexander's address continues.

295‑296:        (27) Coenus' reply.

        297:        (28) Troops' reaction to Coenus' speech. Alexander into his tent ‑ announces he will turn back.

298‑300:        (29) Makedones weep ‑ army divided into 12 parts. Athletic contest‑cavalry exercises. Territory given to Porus. Preparations to reach the Great Sea. Envoys from the Abisares. Return to the Hydaspes.


Bk. VI, pp. 301‑347:


        301:        (1) Ready for sailing down the Hydaspes to the Great Sea. Indus‑Acesines‑Nile.

        342:        (2) Coenus dies. Porus king of 7 nations. Alexander divides his army, number of ships.

303‑304:        (3) Alexander and troops board the ships ‑ Libation to Herakles ‑ sailing down the Hydaspes.

        305:        (4) 3rd day ‑ receives and conquers tribes along the Hydaspes.

        306:        (5) sailing the narrows. Army stops. Nearchus to continue - Alexander against Mallians. Hephaestion to advance ‑to meet at the Acesines‑Hydraotes.

307‑308:        (6) Alexander against the Mallians

        309:        (7) at the Hydraotes river ‑ against the Brachmans.

310‑311:        (8) against the rest of the Mallians. Against the largest Mallian city.

        313:        (9) Army into 2 parts, one under Perdiccas. Alexander leads attack against wall. Sacred shield from Temple of Athena at Ilium carried before Alexander in battle. Companions followed. Indians concentrating attack on Alexander who stood out. Inside the wall.

        314:        (10) Peucestas‑Abreas‑Leonnatus fighting before Alexander‑Alexander wounded. Peucestas with sacred shield - Leonnatus stride over Alexander. More Makedones go over the wall.

315‑316:        (11) massacre of Indians. Alexander carried out ‑ arrow removed. where wounding took place - the battles at Granicus‑Issus‑Gaugamela (Arbela) - who was with Alexander at time of wounding.

        317:        (12) report that Alexander died ‑ lamentation. Then the news that he was alive.

318‑319:        (13) Alexander carried to the camp (at the Hydraotes). at the junction of the Acesines‑Hydraotes. Troops think Alexander is dead ‑ mounds horse ‑ all clap and run at him. Shower him with flowers. Alexander angry at reproaches ‑ Boeotian's line.

        320:        (14) envoys from Mallians and Oxydracae. Hostages returned ‑chariots retained. Sailing down the Acesines where it meets the Indus. Acesines its tributaries.

321‑322:        (15) Perdiccas joins Alexander at the Acesines‑Indus. Arranges affairs. Philip's satrapy. Founding of city. Oxyartes visits Alexander. At Sogdia, royal city. Craterus against the Arachosians and Drangians. Toward kingdom of Musicanus who goes to meet Alexander.

        323:        (165) against Oxycanus, governor. Against Sambus, self-appointed satrap. Sindimana (capital) receives Alexander.

324‑325:        (17) Musicanus revolts. Peithon against Musicanus ‑Alexander  against cities. Governor of Pattala (Indus river delta). Craterus with troops toward Carmania. Hephaestion in command over other army. Chief of Pattala revolts., Pattala. empty.

        326:        (18) fortification of Pattala. Building of harbor and dock yards where Indus divides into 2 parts. Alexander sails down right‑hand river. Must seek shelter.

        327:        (19) ocean tide. Troops amazed. at the Cilluta island ‑ on the way to the sea. Sacrifices according to oracle of Ammon. Alexander sails out into the sea. Sacrifices to Poseidon.

        329:        (20) returns to Pattala ‑ sailing down to the sea. At a large lake ‑ at the sea ‑ return to Pattala. Again to the lake.

        330:        (21) monsoon season (trade winds). Nearchus waiting for the season to sail ‑ Alexander at the Arabius river (Arabitae) ‑invasion of the Oreitans' territory.

331‑332:        (22) against the Gadrosians‑Oreitans. Leonnatus left in the Oreitans' territory. Alexander‑Hephaestion against Gadrosians. Aristobulus: myrrh trees growing in desert.

333‑334:        (23) Alexander through territory of Gadrosians. Supplies‑seal. Inhabitants to bring provisions.

335‑336:        (24) toward Pura ‑ capital of Gadrosia. Alexander's miseries suffered here.

        337:        (25) miseries‑transport animals dying. Heavy rains.

338‑339:        (26) praise of Alexander ‑ Alexander's thirst. Desert ‑guides at a loss ‑ by the sea Alexander digs up fresh water.

340‑341:        (27) at Gadrosian capital. Administrative arrangements. Craterus meets Alexander at Carmania. Satraps also arrived. Cleander‑Sitalces put to death ‑ later Herakon. Transport animals and camels brought to Alexander.

342‑343:        (28) story of how Alexander drove through Carmania (Arrian does not believe). Sacrifices‑athletic games - artistic contests ‑ Names of officers of bodyguards (8). Nearchus by the inhabited part of the Carmanian seashore. Nearchus' voyage recounted separately (Bk. VIII). Hephaestion dispatched to lead his force to Persia.

344‑345:        (29) Alexander toward Pasargadae‑Persia. Baryaxes ‑ cap in the upright position. Put to death. Cyrus' tomb rifled. Alexander tortures Magians who guarded tomb.

346‑347:        (30) toward Persepolis ‑ Arrian disapproves of the burning of the palace earlier. Orxines punished. Peucestas and his adoption of Persian ways.


Bk. VII, pp. 348‑398:


        348:        (1) at Persepolis ‑ Alexander's desire to sail down the Euphrates‑Tigris. Alexander's other plans. Arrian's view of the plans. Indian wise men.

349‑350:       (2) Alexander does not follow wise men’s advice. Diogenes of Sinope ‑ Calanus joins Alexander.

        351:        (3) Calanus immolates himself.

352‑353:        (4) Alexander at Susa. Irregularities of rulers while Alexander was away. THE WEDDINGS AT SUSA.

354‑355:        (5) Alexander clears debts of army. Gifts given according to repute.

        356:        (6) governors of new cities – 30.000 youths, the "Successors" (Epigonoi). Makedones annoyed ‑ with Peucestas, too. Enlistment of foreigners into army ‑ Makedones indignant.

357‑358:        (7) Hephaestion to the Persian Sea ‑ Alexander to Susa. Sails down the river. On the Euphrates‑Tigris rivers. Alexander's sailing and up the Tigris.

        359:        (8) OPIS Makedones are summoned. Announces the discharge of the unfit. Makedones suspicious of Alexander's move. Indignation caused by Alexander's behavior. Alexander had grown worse‑tempered. Alexander leaps down with indignation.

360‑362:        (9) Addresses the Makedones. Philip's deeds ‑ his deeds.

        363:        (10) Address continues. The deeds in the East.

364‑365:        (11) Alexander withdraws into palace. Makedones struck silent by speech. At the gates of palace begging Alexander. Alexander comes out, Their complaints. Alexander calls them brothers ‑ sacrifices ‑ general feast ‑fellowship (OMONOIA) between Makedones and Persians.

366‑368:        (12) 10.000 Makedones discharged. Promises to bring the children of Asian women after they had been educated in the Makedonian ways. Craterus was to lead them ‑Antipater to bring new drafts of Makedones. Friction between Antipater and Olympias.

369‑370:        (13) Reconciliation of Hephaestion and Eumenes. Plain of Nysa (50.000 horses grazing),. Story of AMAZONS.

371‑372:        (14) At Ecbatana ‑ sacrifice ‑ athletic‑literary contest - drinking bouts. HEPHAESTION DIES. Alexander's grief reaction. Abstaining of food. Funeral ‑ extent of mourning ‑ athletic‑literary contest ‑ 3.000 competitors.

373‑374:        (15) recovering from mourning ‑ against Cossaeans ‑Embassies‑ congratulating Alexander. Romans (Arrian questions their embassy).

375‑376:        (16) desire to explore the Caspian Sea. Crossed Tigris toward Babylon. Chaldaean seers urge him not to go to Babylon.

        377:        (17) Alexander somewhat suspicious of the Chaldaeans. Alexander had in mind to rebuild the Temple of Belus. What Aristobulus says about this.

378‑379:        (18) Aristobulus ‑ story of Apollodorus and his brother Peithagoras, a seer, about Alexander.

380‑381:        (19) at Babylon ‑ embassies from the Hellenes. Objects plundered by Xerxes returned (e.g., bronze statues of Harmodius and Aristogeiton). Flotilla at Babylon. Hiring of sea‑faring men ‑ colonizing Persian Gulf.

382‑383:        (20) story about Arabs ‑ Uranus‑Dionysus. Two islands off mouth of Euphrates. Stories told by Archias who explored Arabian coast. Sailing round of Arabian peninsula. Nearchus' story.

384‑385:        (21) building of triremes ‑ digging of harbor at Babylon. Sailing down the Euphrates. On the Euphrates. Alexander wants to assist land of Assyria.

        386:        (22) into the marshlands (encouraged that nothing had happened at Babylon). Story of the tombs of Assyrian kings. The ribbon (diadem) ‑ beheading of the wearer - Aristobulus differently - Phoenician ‑ Seleucus.

387‑389:        (23) return to Babylon Peucestas with 20.000 Persians. Embassies from Hellas. Praised Persians ‑ enrolled them into Makedonian units ‑ fleet constantly exercised. Return of envoys from Ammon ‑ inquired how to honor Hephaestion – instructions.

        390:        (24) Alexander's end near. Omen ‑ throne left untenanted - someone sits on throne ‑ seers' prophecies. Sacrifices ‑carousing ‑ Medius invites Alexander to join his party.

391‑392:        (25) Royal diaries so report ‑ drinking at Medius ‑bathing ‑ developing fever. Carried on a litter performed his religious duties daily. Gave instructions of the sail to his officers. Alexander's condition day by day.

        393:        (26) everything in the royal diaries. The troops want to see their king. Temple of Serapis ‑ god instructs to leave Alexander where he was. DEATH OF ALEXANDER. Ptolemy and Aristobulus ended their accounts here. Others recorded that Alexander left his kingdom "to the best" (signet ring, Perdiccas).

        394:        (27) other details of Alexander's death known to Arrian. Poisoning ‑ incident with Roxane.

        395:        (28) When Alexander died (114th Olympiad). Arrian's summation of Alexander.

        396:        (29) Arrian continues his summation of Alexander.

397‑398:        (30) How Alexander is to be judged. Oracles‑visions of Alexander's death. Arrian admires Alexander ‑ censures some of his acts.


T°low t∞w juggraf∞w t«n ÉAlejãndrou ¶rgvn



Bk. VIII: ARRIANOU INDIKH (INDIKA) [Loeb CLibrary] – References to Alexander and the Makedones.




The Greek Alexander Romance (transl. by Richard Stoneman, Penguin

                 Classics, 1991)  [Date: 2nd-3rd c. A.D.]



Introduction ‑ pp. 1‑27

Note on Text ‑ 28‑32


Book I


Nectanebo ‑ birth of Alexander ‑ 35‑45 (sections 1‑12)

Colt ‑ 45‑46 (13) [Boukephalas]

Alexander ‑ Nectanebo ‑ 46‑47 (14)

Philip‑Delphi‑Successor ‑ 47 (15)

Alexander‑Aristotle ‑ 47‑48 (16)

Bucephalas ‑ 48‑49 (17)

Olympic Games‑Alexander ‑ 49‑50 (18)

                                             ‑ 50‑52 (19)

                                       - 52 (20)

Olympias‑Philip‑Cleopatra ‑ 52 (20)‑53 (21)

Alexander‑Philip‑Olympias ‑ 53‑54 (22)

Alexander‑Persian satraps ‑ 54‑55 (23)

Pausanias‑Olympias‑Philip‑Alexander ‑ death of Philip ‑ 55 (24)

Alexander king ‑ 56‑57 (25)

Alexander counts his army ‑ 57‑58 (26)

Alexander‑Lacedaemon‑Thebes ‑ 59‑60 (27)

Preparations for invasion of Persia ‑ 61 (28)

Sicily ‑ 61 (29)

Africa‑Ammon ‑ 61‑62 (30)

Grave of Osiris‑foundation of Alexandria ‑ 62‑64 (31)

Island of Pharus ‑ 64‑65 (32)

Obelisks‑inquires about his death ‑ 65‑68 (33)

In Egypt ‑ 68‑69 (34)

Syria‑Tyre ‑ 69‑70 (35)

Letter from Darius ‑ 70‑71 (36)

Letter terrifies Makedonians ‑ 71‑72 (37)

Alexander's letter to Darius ‑ 72‑73 (38)

Darius' letter ‑ 7‑74 (39)

                     ‑ 74 (40)

Alexander in Cilicia ‑ 74‑76 (41)

Flight of Darius‑Alexander in Phrygia ‑ 76‑77 (42)

Alexander in Abdera ‑ ?6‑78 (43)

Alexander in Bottiaea ‑ 78 (44)

Locrians‑Acragas ‑ 78‑79 (45)

At Thebes           79‑85 (46)

At Corinth              85‑86 (47)


Book II


At Plataea‑prophetess ‑ 8?‑88 (1)

Athenians‑orators - 88‑90 (2)

                              - 90‑91 (3)

                              - 91‑92 (4)

Crown of victory to Alexander ‑ 92‑93 (5)

At Lacedaemon ‑ 93‑94 (6)

Darius consults with Persian leaders ‑ 94‑95 (7)

At the river Ocean ‑ 95‑96 (8)

In Media‑(Gaugamela) ‑ 96‑97 (9)

Flight to Bactria‑Darius' letter ‑ 98‑99 (10)

Alexander writes to his satraps‑Darius to his generals 99‑100 (11)

Porus' letter to Darius ‑ 100 (12)

At Persia ‑ 100‑101 (13)

The river Stranga ‑ Alexander prisoner ‑ 101‑102 (14)

Persians‑Alexander ‑ 103‑104 (15)

Alexander prepares Hellenes for fight ‑ 104‑106 (16)

Darius writes to Alexander ‑ 106‑107 (17)

Tomb of Cyrus ‑ 107‑108 (18)

Darius writes to Porus ‑ 108 (19)

Bessus plots Darius' death ‑ 108‑109 (20)

Alexander buries Darius‑issues proclamation‑writes to Darius' family‑Roxane ‑ 110‑114 (21)

Writes to his mother ‑ 114‑123 (22‑41)  (sections 42‑43 omitted)

Toward India - 125 (44)


Book III


Against Porus - 127‑131 (1‑4)

Indian philosophers ‑ 131‑133 (5‑6)  (sections 7‑16 omitted)

With Porus ‑ 133‑135 (17)

Queen Candace ‑ 135‑137 (18‑19)

Wife of Candaules, son of Candace‑Candace ‑ 137‑142 (20‑23)

Where the gods dwell 142‑143 (24)

Against the Amazons 143‑145 (25‑26)

Letters to his mother ‑ 145‑149 (27‑30)

Antipater mistreats Olympias ‑ 149‑151 (31)

Plot against Alexander ‑ Death of Alexander ‑ 151‑152 (32)


Alexander's will ‑ 152‑159


Supplements to the Text ‑ 161‑188


Notes ‑ 189‑196






Elias Kapetanopoulos, Professor Dr.

Department of History

Central Connecticut State University

New Britain, CT 06050-4010


E-mail: Kapetanopoulos@.ccsu.edu


Web site: www.history.ccsu.edu/elias/elias.htm


Research: Athens in the Roman period, 200 B.C.-A.D. 300; early Makedon(ia)/Makedones.